The last letter of Mary Queen of Scots; Researched by Francesco Josepa Dougan… 8 February 2020 English Translation Queen of Scotland 8 Feb. 1587

The last letter of Mary Queen of Scots;
Researched by Francesco Josepa Dougan… 8 February 2020
English Translation
Queen of Scotland
8 Feb. 1587
Royal brother, having by God’s will, for my sins I think, thrown myself into the power of the Queen my cousin, at whose hands I have suffered much for almost twenty years, I have finally been condemned to death by her and her Estates.
I have asked for my papers, which they have taken away, in order that I might make my will, but I have been unable to recover anything of use to me, or even get leave either to make my will freely or to have my body conveyed after my death, as I
would wish, to your kingdom where I had the honour to be queen, your sister and old ally.
Tonight, after dinner, I have been advised of my sentence: I am to be executed like a criminal at eight in the morning. I have not had time to give you a full account of everything that has happened, but if you will listen to my doctor and my other unfortunate servants, you will learn the truth, and how, thanks be to God, I scorn death and vow that I meet it innocent of any crime, even if I were their subject.
The Catholic faith and the assertion of my God-given right to the English crown are the two issues on which I am condemned, and yet I am not allowed to say that it is for the Catholic religion that I die, but for fear of interference with theirs.
The proof of this is that they have taken away my chaplain, and although he is in the building, I have not been able to get permission for him to come and hear my confession and give me the Last Sacrament, while they have been most insistent that I receive the consolation and instruction of their minister, brought here for that purpose.
The bearer of this letter and his companions, most of them your subjects, will testify to my conduct at my last hour. It remains for me to beg Your Most Christian Majesty, my brother-in-law and old ally, who have always protested your love for me, to give proof now of your goodness on all these points: firstly by charity, in paying my unfortunate servants the wages due them – this is a burden on my conscience that only you can relieve: further, by having prayers offered to God for a queen who has borne the title Most Christian, and who dies a Catholic, stripped of all her possessions.
As for my son, I commend him to you in so far as he deserves, for I cannot answer for him. I have taken the liberty of sending you two precious stones, talismans against illness, trusting that you will enjoy good health and a long and happy life.
Accept them from your loving sister-in-law, who, as she dies, bears witness of her warm feeling for you. Again I commend my servants to you.
Give instructions, if it please you, that for my soul’s sake part of what you owe me should be paid, and that for the sake of Jesus Christ, to whom I shall pray for you tomorrow as I die, I be left enough to found a memorial mass and give the customary alms.
Wednesday, at two in the morning

Your most loving and most true sister Mary R
To the most Christian king, my brother and old ally
French Transcription
Reyne descosse
8 feu 1587
Monssieur mon beau frere estant par la permission de Dieu pour mes peschez comme ie croy venue me iecter entre les bras de ceste Royne ma cousine ou iay eu beaucoup dennuis & passe pres de vingt ans ie suis enfin par elle & ses estats condampnee a la mort & ayant demande mes papiers par eulx ostez a ceste fin de fayre mon testament ie nay peu rien retirer qui me seruist ny obtenir conge den fayre ung libre ny quapres ma mort mon corps fust transporte sellon mon desir en votre royaulme ou iay eu lhonneur destre royne votre soeur & ancienne allyee.
Ceiourdhuy apres disner ma este desnonsse ma sentence pour estre executee demain comme une criminelle a huict heures du matin ie nay eu loisir de vous fayre ung ample discours de tout ce qui sest passe may sil vous plaist de crere mon medesin & ces aultres miens desolez seruiters vous oyres la verite & comme graces a dieu ie mesprise las mort & fidellement proteste de la recepuoir innocente de tout crime quant ie serois leur subiecte la religion chatolique& la mayntien du droit que dieu ma donne a ceste couronne sont les deulx poincts de ma condampnation & toutesfoy ilz ne me veullent permettre de dire que cest pour la religion catolique que ie meurs may pour la crainte du champge de la leur & pour preuue ilz mont oste mon aulmonier lequel bien quil soit en la mayson ie nay peu obtenir quil me vinst confesser ny communier a ma mort mays mont faict grande instance de recepuoir la consolation & doctrine de leur ministre ammene pour ce faict.
Ce porteur& sa compaigne la pluspart de vos subiectz vous tesmoigneront mes deportemantz en ce mien acte dernier il reste que ie vous suplie comme roy tres chrestien mon beau frere & ansien allye & qui mauuez tousiours proteste de maymer qua ce coup vous faysiez preuue en toutz ces poincts de vostre vertu tant par charite me souslageant de ce que pour descharger ma conssiance ie ne puis sans vous qui est de reconpenser mes seruiteurs desolez leur layssant leurs gaiges laultre faysant prier dieu pour une royne qui a estay nommee tres chrestienne& meurt chatolique desnuee de toutz ses biens quant a mon fylz ie le vous recommande autant quil le meritera car ie nen puis respondre Iay pris la hardiesse de vous enuoier deulx pierres rares pour la sante vous la desirant parfaicte auuec heurese & longue vie Vous le recepvrez comme de vostre tres affectionee belle soeur mourante en vous rendant tesmoygnage de son bon cueur enuers vous ie vous recommande encore mes seruiteurs vous ordonneres si il vous plaict que pour mon ame ie soye payee de partye de ce me que debuez & qu’en l’honnheur de Jhesus Christ lequel ie priray demayn a ma mort pour vous me laysser de quoy fonder un obit & fayre les aulmosnes requises ce mercredy a deulx heures apres minuit
Vostre tres affectionnee & bien bonne soeur Mari R
Au Roy tres chrestien monssieur mon beau frere & ansien allye
© National Library of Scotland

Historical background
Mary Queen of Scots completed her last letter at 2am on Wednesday 8 February 1587. Six hours later she was to mount the scaffold at Fotheringhay Castle in Northamptonshire. The letter is addressed to Henri III, King of France. He was the younger brother of her first husband, Francois (Francis) II, who had died of an ear infection in 1560 at the age of 16.
Reign and abdication
Mary’s short reign in Scotland, from 1561 to 1567, was at first characterised by stable policy and government. This was in spite of clashes with the Protestant reformer John Knox over Mary’s right to worship according to her Catholic beliefs. But her emotional involvements with Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, and later with James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, led to the breakdown of this stability. They brought about the rebellion of the Protestant lords, and Mary’s abdication and flight into England.
England’s throne
Elizabeth, the English Queen, was faced with a dilemma. Instinctively she wanted to protect her cousin Mary against the Scottish reformers, seeing their action as striking at the roots of all monarchy. On the other hand Mary, dowager Queen of France, and Queen of Scots, was also heiress to the English throne.
In fact, to Catholics throughout Europe, Mary was rightful Queen of England, since Elizabeth herself was the illegitimate daughter of Henry VIII. To maintain her own position as head of the English state, Elizabeth could not afford to allow Mary to remain at liberty.
Catholic hopes
Throughout the 18 years of her imprisonment, Mary symbolised the aspirations of the English Catholics hoping for the restoration of their country to Catholicism. In addition, the rival Catholic Kings of France and Spain each hoped to bring England within his own sphere of political and diplomatic influence by placing Mary on the English throne.
Plots and threats
Directly or indirectly, Mary was involved in plots against the English Queen, in plans for Catholic risings in England, and in diplomatic intrigues on the continent. The Ridolfi plot (1571), the Throckmorton plot (1583), and the Babington conspiracy (1586) all involved the threat of foreign invasion. The English government was persuaded that, to ensure the political stability of England, Mary could not be allowed to live.
Mary’s end
Although disturbed at the thought of executing her cousin, a monarch in her own right, eventually Elizabeth agreed.
The English government insisted that the death of Mary was purely a political matter. However, as she conveys in her last letter, Mary herself believed she was dying a religious martyr.
But what concerned her equally when she wrote to the King of France, with whom she had corresponded regularly while in captivity, was the well-being of her household servants after her execution. In effect, few of these servants returned to their native lands of France and Scotland.
Letter reaches France
Not until late in 1587 was Bourgoing, Mary’s physician, able to make his way to France and give his report to Henri III, presumably delivering this letter at the same time. It was, however, left to Philip II of Spain to authorise, through his ambassador Bernardino Mendoza, the payment of wages and pensions to Mary’s servants.
The letter itself no doubt remained in the French royal archives. Later, at some unknown date, it was given to the Scots College in Paris, a Catholic seminary for Scottish priests, probably as a relic of the martyred Queen. There it remained until the French Revolution, when the College was dissolved, and its archives dispersed.
Presented to Scotland
Mary’s letter then passed through the hands of various owners, and eventually became part of the celebrated collection of autographs formed by the great 19th-century collector Alfred Morrison.
In 1918 the last letter of Mary Queen of Scots was bought by a group of subscribers and presented to the Scottish nation through the National Art Collections Fund. It was held by the Advocates Library, until 1925, when the National Library of Scotland was created.
Mary Stuart was executed on 8 February 1587 at Fotheringhay Castle, after a trial whose outcome forever troubled Queen Elizabeth I
This famous account of the execution was written by Robert Wynkfielde.
Accounts such as these, and woodcuts of the scene, were very popular throughout Europe. The great scandals of Mary’s life were forgotten and she was mourned as a Catholic martyr. The truth of her demise was not so simple. Elizabeth did consistently reject petitions to execute Mary over the 19-year course of her imprisonment. Eventually, however, the Catholic threat was deemed too great and Elizabeth reluctantly signed the warrant for execution.
Her [Mary queen of Scots] prayers being ended, the executioners, kneeling, desired her Grace to forgive them her death: who answered, ‘I forgive you with all my heart, for now, I hope, you shall make an end of all my troubles.’ Then they, with her two women, helping her up, began to disrobe her of her apparel: then she, laying her crucifix upon the stool, one of the executioners took from her neck the Agnus Dei, which she, laying hands off it, gave to one of her women, and told the executioner he should be answered money for it. Then she suffered them, with her two women, to disrobe her of her chain of pomander beads and all other her apparel most willingly, and with joy rather than sorrow, helped to make unready herself, putting on a pair of sleeves with her own hands which they had pulled off, and that with some haste, as if she had longed to be gone.
All this time they were pulling off her apparel, she never changed her countenance, but with smiling cheer she uttered these words, ‘that she never had such grooms to make her unready, and that she never put off her clothes before such a company.’

Then she, being stripped of all her apparel saving her petticoat and kirtle, her two women beholding her made great lamentation, and crying and crossing themselves prayed in Latin. She, turning herself to them, embracing them, said these words in French, ‘Ne crie vous, j’ay prome pour vous’, and so crossing and kissing them, bade them pray for her and rejoice and not weep, for that now they should see an end of all their mistress’s troubles.

Then she, with a smiling countenance, turning to her men servants, as Melvin and the rest, standing upon a bench nigh the scaffold, who sometime weeping, sometime crying out aloud, and continually crossing themselves, prayed in Latin, crossing them with her hand bade them farewell, and wishing them to pray for her even until the last hour.

This done, one of the women having a Corpus Christi cloth lapped up three-corner-ways, kissing it, put it over the Queen of Scots’ face, and pinned it fast to the caule of her head. Then the two women departed from her, and she kneeling down upon the cushion most resolutely, and without any token or fear of death, she spake aloud this Psalm in Latin, In Te Domine confido, non confundar in eternam, etc. Then, groping for the block, she laid down her head, putting her chin over the block with both her hands, which, holding there still, had been cut off had they not been espied. Then lying upon the block most quietly, and stretching out her arms cried, In manus tuas, Domine, etc., three or four times.
Then she, lying very still upon the block, one of the executioners holding her slightly with one of his hands, she endured two strokes of the other executioner with an axe, she making very small noise or none at all, and not stirring any part of her from the place where she lay: and so the executioner cut off her head, saving one little gristle, which being cut asunder, he lifted up her head to the view of all the assembly and bade God save the Queen.
Then, her dress of lawn falling from off her head, it appeared as grey as one of threescore and ten years old, polled very short, her face in a moment being so much altered from the form she had when she was alive, as few could remember her by her dead face.
Her lips stirred up and down a quarter of an hour after her head was cut off.

Then Mr Dean [Dr Fletcher, Dean of Peterborough] said with a loud voice, ‘So perish all the Queen’s enemies,’ and afterwards the Earl of Kent came to the dead body, and standing over it, with a loud voice said, ‘Such end of all the Queen’s and the Gospel’s enemies.’

Then one of the executioners, pulling off her garters, espied her little dog which was crept under her clothes, which could not be gotten forth but by force, yet afterward would not depart from the dead corpse, but came and lay between her head and her shoulders, which being imbrued with her blood was carried away and washed, as all things else were that had any blood was either burned or washed clean, and the executioners sent away with money for their fees, not having any one thing that belonged unto her.
And so, every man being commanded out of the hall, except the sheriff and his men, she was carried by them up into a great chamber lying ready for the surgeons to embalm her.

I have not lost the thread of the story about Mary Stuart the queen of Scots as she was a major contributor in the preservation of the Catholic Faith during the period of the Reformation and her example which, has been grossly misrepresented by Protestant historians and observers due to her devout faith and devotion to the Roman Catholic church.

Scotland’s Secret Shame; Part 1 By Frank J Dougan
210 pages @ 14 point script single line spacing 105,290 words 630,326 characters
https://independent.academia.edu/FrankDougan/Papers
https://maryqueenofscots1587.wordpress.com
Alpha.

6th of April, 1320.
‘ For as long as but one hundred of us remain alive, we will never on any conditions submit to the domination of the English. It is not for glory nor riches, nor honours that we fight, but for freedom alone, which no good man gives up except with his life.’
Signed by the council of Earls, Barons and Freeholders at Newbattle Abbey near Edinburgh. Part of The Declaration of Arbroath, written shortly after Robert De Brus had defeated English invaders at Bannockburn, following in the footsteps of Scotland’s greatest warrior hero and defender of freedom William Wallace!
Oh Wallace William out of the west came to claim
justice, freedom and a nation for God his Lord’s holy name,
no cry or deed or want for himself of glory or fame.
At Stirling Bridge the might of Proud Edward’s army fell,
the cream of England died, lived not a man to tell.
Victory for bold Wallace and his fighters,
river awash with invaders blood did swell.
The great General whom Napoleon followed his thought train,
half of one thousand years again.
A mountain of a man legendary robed in emerald green,
from the depth of the forests the Caledonian,
to free his beloved land from tyranny, wipe out oppression,
degradation, exploitation The Wallace cried ‘Rebellion’.
From the mouth of the giant came!
‘ Dico tibi verum libertas optima rerum
nunquam servili sub nexu vivito fili’.
( Freedom is best I tell thee true, of all things to be won,
then never live within the bond of slavery my son!)
Reading, writing ‘n speaking in tongues French, Gaelic, Latin,
this awesome intellectual warrior of history and science
The Celts to him they came with the crown of guardian.
Evil Edward now long forgotten of him no man will ken,
forever the indestructible name of the Wallace William
is revered in every glen.
Some day not far the nation of Scotland will sprout,
the cry goes out with thoughts of a Wallace shout swords will be drawn battle lines take their form, every man stout, Alba, Caledonia, Scotland, the warrior hero William Wallace devout.
By Francesco Josepa Dougan
Pravda
The truth about the lies and propaganda of the Scottish Reformation, and the death of the Protestant faith, as we enter the twenty first century.
Perhaps this period in history was one of the most violent times ever even for such a nation that was evolved from a warrior like people. The mid sixteenth century in the tumultuous reformation period had enveloped Scotland into a sea of blood and hatred such as had never been witnessed before or since.
Looking back through the misty window of time, the finger of guilt must be pointed at the ruling classes of the English who have conquered and pillaged across the face of the world, only to have been ejected eventually without contributing much to improve the standards of the natives of their conquests.
Although Scotland had a very small population in comparison to England the Scots held up admirably for over six hundred years against the English aggressors. One department that the Scots could not match the English at was cunning and deceit in this department the English were the masters even to this very day the rulers of the English know all the tricks.
The division of the Scots as a nation was the final solution, and that was introduced and succeeded during the period of the reformation, by the distorted and venereal diseased mind of Henry VIII the king of England. The term feudalism was a form of slavery and kept everyone under the power of their masters with fear of losing their home or life.
What this means is that the Bourgeoisie who were the land owners controlled the lives of the Proletariat, to the extent that the poor had no rights what so ever and could be expelled from their home and land on the whim of their masters and even murdered.
The feudal system was imposed all over Europe and with the introduction of the printing press in Germany around 1490; the peasant population then had access to learning to read, as prior to this period only the clergy and Bourgeoisie were allowed the joy of education openly.
The opening of this magical world of knowledge created an explosion of writers and thinkers to present new ideas to the world with revolutionary views and ideologies.
The Reformation, was part of the new ideology of the early sixteenth century mainly from the hand of Catholic clerics such as Martin Luther in Germany, and Calvin in Geneva?
Luther wanted much needed reforms to the Catholic system, as the church had been infiltrated by the greed of the Bourgeoisie who had placed many of their family members into positions of power, such as Bishops Under the halo of the church, not for ecumenical purposes, rather more for the need to control the spiritual as well as the physical being of the Proletariat.
Changes were inevitable and the ruling classes the Bourgeoisie, sensed the doom of the slave like feudal system. The king of England Henry VIII seized the initiative and strangled the church in England, grabbed all the properties owned by the Catholic church, and created a church to suit his own demented ideology knowing how important a role that the church held for the serf classes, the Proletariat.
Henry could then control every aspect of life from the cradle to the grave. The greatest sting in European history was conceived over a protest for reform, not of the workings of the true faith rather more of the corruption caused by the infiltration of the Bourgeoisie, alas the protest only led to the formation of a so called faith based on hate your neighbour. Protestantism was born, and has been a plague on the world over the past four hundred years, born out of lust and greed rather than necessity
The death of Protestantism is imminent!
The horrific wars of the twentieth century and Holocaust were all the blame of the evil powerbrokers of the powerful Protestant countries, and since the advent of this state sponsored and controlled way of thinking, more death and destruction has been reigned upon mankind than any other period known.
Thankfully, as we enter the first years of the twenty first century and view the decay in Protestantism with churches now derelict or being turned into bars or discotheques due to lack of interest, and mostly to the fact that the Proletariat have access to education, and realize that Catholicism is not the enemy that the Protestant doctrines professed it to be.
One of the last bastions of the Protestant faith Northern Ireland is at this moment under a Roman Catholic secretary of state appointed from London by a pro- Catholic government.
The queen of England, Elizabeth II, recently visited the Pope, John Paul II at the Vatican in Rome to pay him homage, coincidence perhaps that Elizabeth I of England the illegitimate daughter of Henry VIII was the scourge of the Catholic faith like her father.
I am sure that there are many misguided Christian Protestants desperate to find the truth, but with such a splintered organization as it has always been and is still the same today the Protestant faith is like a chicken without a head, though with many demented bodies.
Unlike the Roman Catholic Church, led from Rome with one head leading one body, which is constantly growing stronger with many new Cardinals recently appointed in the first month of the twenty first century.
Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict XVI and Pope Francis enjoy the respect of world leaders and has audiences of over one million people in almost every country they visits no other person in the world could command this sort of attention, especially to be preached at not to do the things that the Protestant churches allow such as divorce birth control, abortion, wars, discrimination, religious intolerance, especially in Scotland and Northern Ireland, where Orange men and women and their unfortunate children, openly display their hate for Catholics with marches led by bands playing hate filled sectarian music and songs.
In the eyes of the civilized world where most Christians enjoy a harmonious relationship Scotland and Northern Ireland are like Lepers.
I personally have never heard a Roman Catholic priest spread words of hate against Protestants, and I have lived and attended services in churches all around the world also in Protestant churches, which seem to have a dreadful fear of Catholicism why I do not know, perhaps they are afraid to live by the rules that the Catholic church demands.
Pope John Paul II helped to bring about the down fall of communism, and set millions of people free to determine their own fate, at the later end of the twentieth century, due to his personal intervention with the then Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachov, who had all his military machine poised on the Polish border threatening to invade Poland, the Pope sent him a hand delivered letter telling Gorbachov that he would lay down the crown of Saint Peter and return to his Polish home land and stop the Soviets invading Poland.
The mighty Soviet machine withdrew thus was prevented the war that would have wiped out the entire world, as the Western Allies had ranged nuclear weapons on the German border of Poland to combat the Soviet threat as they also had nuclear power at hand.
One may argue that it was the power of the Western Allies that caused the Soviets to withdraw their massive military machine, but the Soviets knew all about the western power’s strength before they had amassed on the Polish frontier so it was obvious that they were confident that they could defeat the West in a war, until the intervention of the Pope, and the church that had stood against every empire and has survived for two thousand years with God on its side.
I Lived in West Germany on the Front Line during this period 1983-1989.
I have not lost the thread of the story about Mary Stuart the queen of Scots as she was a major contributor in the preservation of the Catholic Faith during the period of the reformation and her example which, has been grossly misrepresented by Protestant historians and observers due to her devout faith and devotion to the Roman Catholic church.
In reality her half brother and most of the Scottish nobles who were supposed to be her advisers betrayed Mary queen of Scots. This betrayal syndrome was not a new phenomenon amongst the Scottish Bourgeoisie, as the contamination had set in shortly after the Norman invasion of England, who poisoned the ethnic English then slowly spread their grasping tentacles north into Scotland.
William Wallace, the greatest Scots revolutionary paid with his life due to the deliberate betrayal by the Norman’s who had infiltrated the nobility in Scotland, and it should have been clear to Mary Stuart before she left the security of the French royal court that to return to Scotland was not unlike a lamb straying into a lion’s den.
John Knox the Protestant Dictator preacher who had been in the pay of Scotland’s greatest enemy Henry VIII the king of England, and was an accomplice of known Scottish traitors.
Knox became a very rich man as I have discovered recently through his grasping greed and hate he carried a message to hapless ignorant people of his deranged mentality.
Throughout the last millennium many demented monsters such as Knox have brainwashed the Proletariat with a cocktail of hate filled propaganda, or force.
Monsters like Edward I of England, Henry VIII of England, Elizabeth I of England, Oliver Cromwell of England, Josef Stalin of the Soviet Union, Adolph Hitler the Austrian dictator of Germany.
These are just a few though on a world-wide stage have been responsible for the deaths of countless millions, and without a doubt have prayed on the Proletariat when they have been vulnerable.
I am convinced that the above mentioned disrupted and destroyed the good and the decency that existed during the periods that they contaminated the world.
Thankfully they are yesterday’s news though there are some nut cases still in existence today that still require neutering, especially if they are allowed to poison the air with distorted rhetoric.
This story that I am writing is by no means an accurate documented history of Scotland or of the Protestant misconception of Christianity as I am by no manner of means a historian, or academic, rather more an uneducated observer, surrounded by deceit and the final period of the drowning anti-Catholic postures.
My most important criticism about the Scottish Protestants, is the fanatical dislike that they have about fellow Scots who happen to be Roman Catholic, the same situation applies in Northern Ireland more so there as in Scotland, though it must be pointed out that the majority of Protestants there are descended from Scots who stole the land from the Irish, with the aid of the English government today we call this system ethnic cleansing!
Back in the 1960s major riots broke out mainly because Protestants beat Catholics to death on the streets of Northern Ireland, burnt their homes and churches and schools, in exactly the same manner as the Nazis perpetrated against the Jews in Germany, during the 1930s especially on what became known as Krystal Nacht, ”The night of broken glass”.
And one must not forget the Ku Klux Klan the Protestant racist and sectarian sect that thrives on hate and evil on a par with The Orange Order.
The police in Northern Ireland like Scotland, was and still is mostly formed from Protestants and the Masonic secret society, and has for many years displayed and practiced discrimination against Catholics, though now I must say that Catholics are more educated and can combat the threat, in more ways than one therefore the Fascists who thrive within the security organizations, have softer less able to fight back peoples, the beautiful folk who happen to be a shade more darker in colour that so called white people.
On the streets of Edinburgh the capital of Scotland stands a statue in honour of one of the dastardliest bounder’s in Scottish history…John Knox.
A proven traitor, liar and cheat and money grabber and sexual deviant, he bled the poor serfs and raked in a fortune for his own selfish needs and brainwashed the hapless peasants, to rob and destroy Catholic churches and monasteries throughout Perthshire and eventually all over Scotland not unlike Hitler’s henchmen did to the Jewish people in Europe, and the K. K. K. has done against black people in USA
Unlike Hitler and this to me beggars belief Knox is glorified in Scotland, and indeed to Presbyterians scattered around the globe as a hero, and great reformism leader.
Hitler once quoted, ‘ The bigger the lie more people believe it’.
He must have studied the methods of Knox, probably as did Stalin, Chairman Mao and Pol Pot who all exploited the minds and weaknesses of the Proletariat.
What remains mind boggling is the fact that the Protestant Proletariat, are no further forward than their Catholic counterparts, nothing has changed for the better other than that people have the opportunity to visit foreign shores, such as Europe and view Catholics living in harmony with people of other persuasions, and suss out for themselves that all is not so full of doom and gloom as they have been led to believe.
Countless books have been written by so called experts on the life of Mary Queen of Scots, and her struggle against John Knox to whom she paid lots of money.
He was more than happy to take her money in reality to him it should have been tainted as we are led to believe from his opinions of his queen.
So much for the so-called high principals of the ex galley slave and serial collaborator with his country’s enemy England.
Was this a man you could have trusted I think not…?
I have noted from the work of a prominent Scottish historian himself a Protestant, that Knox was hen pecked yet he was constantly surrounded by demented female followers, obviously not of sound mind. In recent years one has seen what fundamentalism has created in the middle east under the rule of the Ayatollahs, who could have taken a leaf out of the works of Knox, and one could envisage the despot rule that the Scots were subjected to because of the misuse of religious xenophobia.
I am not versed on the understanding of Islam so therefore I am unable to comment on the path of the Ayatollah’s who now rule Iran with an iron fist now Islamic forces have infiltrated the Western Governments to sleeketly take over Christian nations and Israel as almost every Islamic nation has been destroyed by God for the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem c1006ad.
But I take issue with anyone who demands that the Proletariat is forced to accept the word of God under duress such as Knox and others since him have enforced upon the masses.
God, is a matter of conscience for the individual, and the only true freedom that one has the joy to embrace and find personal happiness.
And for me personally this right is the foundation of what every religion based on the love and trust of God and should be built upon.
Devil worship was rife in Berwick and was a stronghold during and after the Reformation, this was the territory where John Knox had his first post.
Throughout the years since the reformation so called historians have kidded the proletariat with a lot of bull over the glory of the Protestant victory or struggle, as they like to call it.
The truth has been covered up of the fact that in Scotland, that the reformation was a coup d’ teat, engineered by a group of ruthless cunning conniving, power hungry devil worshipers who when they had the chance they took it went totally mad.
Most books that I have read on the history of Scotland, have in fact in my opinion been platforms to glorify the wonders of the now dying Protestant faith.
How could have so many been kidded by so few for so long.
We’ve seen Communism and Fascism and Islam crumbling come and go to a certain extent in recent times yet this abomnamation under the banner of a religious movement.
Protestantism has clawed its way through four hundred years in the name of religion.
It must be said that the Roman Catholic Church during the sixteenth century required a shake up due to infiltration by heretics and this was taking place then, but for Knox and others of his train of thought and motives it was not quick enough, whereby allowing foxes a free run at the chicken coup, while the Catholic Church was caught in a moment of hesitation.
The sheer size of the Roman Catholic Church pre- reformation was susceptible to abuse, as was and is the same situation for every major world-wide organization and the same applies today.
No doubt this will continue in every walk of life but as a Church the Catholics have performed the only true reformation within its corridors of power, and grown into a major unit of strength though on saying this, it always must ensure to keep the garden tidy and rake out the weeds that are inevitable.
Scotland is actually in a sorry state having to rely on the crumbs that fall from the masters at Whitehall in London. This has been the state of affairs since the country was foolishly handed over to be ruled from London by the leaders of the Protestant reformation what else can one call it other than a sellout, because it has not helped the Scots to progress in Scotland, though they do if they immigrate.
Scots progress in other lands where they are free from the stupidity created and sustained in Scotland by the dark forces of Presbyterianism, that is a constant thorn in the flesh of modernisation and self determination.

The nest of thieves and robbers of the British Library, London, England and charging and robbing the proliteriat to view the Holy Bible "The Codex Amiatinus and The Lindisfarne Gospels"!

The nest of thieves and robbers of the British Library, London, England robbing the proliteriat to view the Holy Bible “The Codex Amiatinus and The Lindisfrane Gospels”!
Codex Amiatinus, the earliest complete Latin Bible, has returned to the British Library for the first time in over 1,300 years ago for display in the exhibition. This giant illuminated Bible was made at Wearmouth-Jarrow in Northumbria in the early 8th century. Abbot Ceolfrith took it with him on his final voyage to Italy, as a gift to the Pope in 716. It is now held in the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana in Florence which is generously loaning the manuscript. It will be shown with the St Cuthbert Gospel, the earliest intact European book, which was also made at Wearmouth-Jarrow and was acquired by the British Library in 2012.
The two books are very different: while the St Cuthbert Gospel, which contains only the Gospel of John, can be held in one hand, the spine of Codex Amiatinus, containing the whole Bible, is nearly a foot thick. These two books will be exhibited alongside the Lindisfarne Gospels, one of Britain’s greatest artistic treasures, and other illuminated manuscripts of international significance made in the late 7th and 8th centuries.

Name: Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms: Art, Word, War
Location: PACCAR Gallery
The British Library
96 Euston Road
London
NW1 2DB
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When: Fri 19 Oct 2018 – Tue 19 Feb 2019
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Price: Full Price: £16.00
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A voluntary donation can be added over the regular ticket price. You will be helping the Library to conserve and share its collection. If you are a UK tax-payer and ‘Gift Aid’ your donation, the Library can reclaim the tax you have paid.
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Copy of the dedication page of Codex Amiatinus, from the Anonymous Life of Ceolfrith: Harley MS 3020, f. 33r
Codex Amiatinus is now preserved in the Biblioteca Laurenziana in Florence. It will be returning for the British Library’s Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms exhibition (19 October 2018–19 February 2019). You can book your tickets to see this remarkable manuscript here.
The Lindisfarne Gospels are in London in the British Museum Library they were stolen from Durham Cathedral by the thugs of Henry VIII.
I am campaigning for their return to St. Mary’s Cathedral in Newcastle and the repatriation of the holy remains of St. Bede from Durham Cathedral to the Roman Catholic churches named after St. Bede in Jarrow and South Shields where he can be venerated in the Roman Catholic tradition.

The Holy Gospels were on display at Durham Cathedral in 2013 and they were charging people £8.00 to view them.
This meant that people on low income or unemployed could not afford to see them yet over 100,000 people viewed them.
I asked the British Library where did the money go…they told me they did not know.
I have had a reply from His Holiness, Pope Francis relating to my quest, I can send attachments of the letter I sent to His Holiness and the reply The Vatican sent me stating; ‘ The Holy Father will remember your intentions in his prayers. He invokes upon you God’s abundant blessings.’
I have also had letters of reply from The Apostolic Nuncio, His Grace, Archbishop Antonio Mennini stating about The Gospels and St. Bede; ‘ This is a matter for The Church of England to decide on, possibly in consultation with the Catholic Bishops of England and Wales.’
Also a letter of reply from His Eminence, Cardinal Nichols assuring me of his prayers.
Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth answered my letter and told me that she had sent my letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury.
I wrote to him last month but alas no reply.
The Lindisfarne Gospels were created by Roman Catholic scribes and I believe St. Bede had some influence in the translations as he was arguably one of the greatest scribes in the history of the English Roman Catholic Church to which he was solidly dedicated.
I am also calling for the repatriation of the Holy remains of St. Cuthbert to be removed from Durham Cathedral and placed in a fitting Roman Catholic home such as St. Mary’s Cathedral, Newcastle.
St. Cuthbert was the greatest Roman Catholic miracle creating saint in all of England and Scotland and I can assure you his miracles will return when he is home.
His shrine along with the shrine of St. Bede were destroyed when Durham Cathedral was desecrated at the hands of the followers of Henry VIII who created The Church of England to suit his demonic ideology and destruction of the Roman Catholic Faith and the veneration of saints in England and the barbaric destruction of monasteries, churches and all things Catholic along with the slaughter of priests.
In Durham Cathedral stands a statue reputedly that of St. Cuthbert next to his tomb his head was cut off during the Reformation.
In his hand he holds the head of St. Oswald who’s head was buried with him.
What a preposterous sad state of affairs to look upon the headless effigy of St. Cuthbert holding the head of another great Roman Catholic saint.
In The Church of England tradition there are no paintings or icons of St. Bede or St. Cuthbert in Durham Cathedral to remind the faithful of these great English saints and this has got to be rectified now!
Saints alive!
‘I am Cuthbert, I am Bede, I am Oswald
devout in the Roman Catholic Faith indeed.
Our hearts are broken in Durham Cathedral once
a Roman Catholic House of God now a basilica of doom and gloom.
Our spirits once roamed through the lightened cloisters and our
brethren rejoiced in our places of rest
until the Reformation desecrated our Apostolic quest.
No more to us the Holy Roman Mass and Consecration of the Body and Blood
of our beloved brother Jesus Christ.
Release our darkened bones from these cold, dank, dark sarcophagus
in this now foreign Acropolis.
Take us from this place of woe
to where the Catholic faith does glow
and enjoy our presence forever mo’.
By Francis Joseph Dougan.
I contacted The British Library regarding ownership of The Lindisfarne Gospels and the possibility of them being sent on loan to St. Mary’s Cathedral in Newcastle upon Tyne.
I also asked them for information as to what happen with the considerable sums of money that they charged for people to view them when they were on loan to Palace Green Library, Durham during 2013.

The reply is attached and below;

19th February 2015.
Thank you for your correspondence. As you pointed out, the Lindisfarne Gospels were once in the possession of Durham Cathedral Priory, according to Symeon of Durham, who refers to them in his twelfth-century
‘Tract on the Origins and Progress of this the Church of Durham.’
After this period there is very little information on how or when the Lindisfarne Gospels left Durham Cathedral Priory. Lawrence Nowell, an antiquary and lexicographer, is known to have consulted the Lindisfarne Gospels in the 1560s, but he is not believed to have visited Durham.
The name Thomas Turner also appears in the codex, and his annotations have been dated to the early sixteenth century.

The sixteenth-century antiquary Thomas Bowyer (d.1569/70) may also have possessed the manuscript; by 1605, it was in the possession of his son, Robert Bowyer (b. c. 1560, d. 1621), a parliamentary official and politician, who inscribed his signature on the verso page of the second leaf of the manuscript.
In the first few decades of the seventeenth century Sir Robert Bruce Cotton (b. 1571, d. 1631) 1st baronet, antiquary and politician, acquired the manuscript.

It was then passed on to his son, Sir Thomas Cotton (b. 1594, d. 1662), and grandson, Sir John Cotton (b. 1621, d.1702).
The Cotton collection, including the Lindisfarne Gospels, was bequeathed to the nation ‘for Publick Use and Advantage’ by Sir John Cotton at his death in 1702.

When the British Museum was established in 1753, these manuscripts formed one of the foundation collections of the Museum.
The library of the Museum became the British Library in 1973. As you note, the Gospels were recently loaned to Palace Green Library, Durham, for an exhibition, and the accompanying book Richard Gameson, From holy Island to Durham:

The Contexts and Meanings of The Lindisfarne Gospels (2013) contains an excellent analysis of the manuscript’s history.

The Library does not have details of the funding for that exhibition.

Regards Mark Reaveley Customer Services British Library.

Since I raised this issue about the Lindisfarne Gospels being returned to Roman Catholic care takers as they were written by Roman Catholics at Lindisfarne by St Aidfrith and I am in no hesitation that our wonderful St. Bede would have contributed to the translations as he was the greatest translator, scholar alive at that period and lived at St. Paul’s Monastery at Jarrow and he would have been about 26 years old then and Lindisfarne and St. Paul’s would have had a daily communication along with St. Peter’s Abbey in Wearmouth as they were a short boat trip from each other on the same East Coast of England.
I have had letters of reply and support for my quest from His Eminence Cardinal, Vincent Nichols, His Excellency, Papal Nuncio, Archbishop Antonio Mennini and Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth II and recently from Rt. Hon Amber Rudd MP.

As one may note from the reply from the British Library the Gospels of Our Blessed Lord Jesus Christ have been bandied about from pillar to post by God knows who since the Reformation and now being used as a money making venture as over 100,000 people had to pay over £8 per person to view them at Durham this meant that people who were on low pay with a couple of kids or unemployed or pensioners could not afford to view one of the greatest wonders of the world and the source and lifeblood of our civilization.

The Lindisfarne Gospels were written in the North East of England and should be returned there into Roman Catholic safekeeping Now!
Written and researched By Francis Joseph Dougan

I must add that The Ottoman Muslims were embroiled in defeating Roman Catholicism at this point in history~~~as they controlled vast areas of Europe and influenced the Protestant Reformers to destroy the Roman Faith.

Written and researched by Francesco Josepa Dougan
https://independent.academia.edu/FrankDougan/Papers
The birth of Mary Stuart who was crowned Queen of France and should have been Queen of England which would have united three kingdoms.
This would have been a direct threat to Charles the Fifth of Germanic peoples, and as James Bryce narrates; ‘ A prince had just ascended the imperial throne who united dominions vaster than any Europe had seen since the days of his great namesake. Spain and Naples, Flanders, and other parts of the Burgundian lands, as well as large regions of eastern Germany, obeyed Charles; he drew inexhaustible revenues from an empire beyond the Atlantic, he had all the gold and rich treasures from Peru and Mexico.’
The English and French were so busy fighting each other and getting the Scots involved in their continuous wars the lords and nobles from the 3 nations, were so blind that they did not see the advantage of being united under one monarch, therefore the Lutherans and Calvinists created the great diversion of Church property, this took the nobles and lords minds away from the big picture of Europe, and plunged Scotland and England into hundreds of years of civil wars and strife, that could have been avoided if they had seen the value of the ace that they held… Mary Stuart.
James Bryce continued; ‘It may well be doubted-Englishmen at least have reason for the doubt-whether the Reformation would not have lost as much as it could have gained by being entangled in the meshes of royal patronage.’
James Bryce continues his interpretation he stated; ‘ Several fanatical sects arose; refusing to conform to the ordinary rules without which human society could not subsist.
The principles which had led the Protestants to sever themselves from the Roman Church should have taught them to bear with the opinions of others, and warned them from the attempt to connect agreement in doctrine or manner of worship with the indispensable forms of secular government.
A church which does not claim to be infallible is bound to allow that some part of the truth may possibly be with its adversaries. A church which permits or encourages human reason to apply itself to revelation has no right first to argue with people and then to punish them if they are not convinced.’
He points out the faults that the Protestant churches make even to this day regardless of the fact that the Roman Church was accused of so many indiscretions, which does not give license for others to follow bad examples especially as the reformers dictated that they were the true example of Christianity.
Harry Reid wrote in (Outside Verdict) ‘ It was a time for martyrs across Europe.’ Who do we refer the name martyrs upon ?
James Bryce points out at the start of his chapter on the Reformation that it was politics and not religion that created all the strife, though the Catholic Church was the easy whipping boy as there did not exist a Roman Catholic armed forces organisation, such as individual nations had at their disposal.
There was at one point in history where many nations united in a Christian force at the time of the Crusades.
I must add that The Ottoman Muslims were embroiled in defeating Roman Catholicism at this point in history~as they controlled vast areas of Europe and influenced the Protestant Reformers to destroy the Roman Faith. At the height of the Reformation there were no great Roman Catholic invasions, in fact the French did not interfere with other nations who supported Protestantism, though they did fight the Huguenots within France. Reid emphasis’s that; ‘ Calvinism has become something of a byword for meanness of the spirit.’ He also quotes Paul Scott CMG, president of the Saltire Society as stating; ” I am a Presbyterian atheist.”? Also George Rosie another writer and atheist both of whom warmly praised the Reformation, which to me seems rather contradictory and pitiful that these acquaintances of the former editor of the Glasgow Herald have decided that they do not believe in God though claim to be Presbyterians surely this proves my point on the political factor that Presbyterianism is not a religion. Harry poses a thought-provoking questionable writing thus; ” If outsiders and atheists can be so impressed ( by the Reformation ) why on earth can’t the Kirk itself take a bit of pride in its past, in its vast contribution.” ? The question must be addressed if these outsiders and atheists are so impressed by Presbyterianism and the Reformation, why are they not aligned to one of the many sects that they have available to them, or is it perhaps that they have been driven away from the teaching of Christ, because of the distorted doctrines and political agendas that they have had to endure from the Kirk and its demented companions. Reid continued to describe Lord Sutherland of Houndwood who considered at one time becoming a Church of Scotland minister, although he is not a member of the Kirk? He quotes him as saying; ” I do miss the days when the Church of Scotland seemed to matter so much. There are still issues around that I am sure that the Church could debate much better than our new Parliament could. But who is listening? The Church of Scotland cannot turn time back if our society has moved on. But it must not respond by falling prey to every fashion. If relativism and materialism are all around us, people are going to be looking for a degree of comfort, consolation and certainty – all sorts of things. The Church can provide these, but it desperately needs leadership.” Lord Sutherland was Principal of the University of Edinburgh, a member of its divinity faculty and professor of the philosophy of religion at New Collage. Why was he not a member of the Church of Scotland if he missed it so much? as he is well qualified to run the show, but obviously he does not posses the faith to become embroiled with the Kirk. His claim that the Church of Scotland needs leadership is the question that must be answered, what kind of leadership would he advocate Knox or White? or perhaps someone with integrity and a vision to bring Presbyterians into the 21st century, firstly to get round a table with Roman Catholics and hammer out a way to overcome the terrible past and crimes that both sides have committed against the other, and to start looking for a way to bring all the Christian faithful under one roof, together with Muslims, Jews, Hindus, Buddhists and every other faith, then perhaps the whole world will find peace. Lets face the facts the people of the world will never love each other, but we can all respect each others civilizations, and that has got to be taught not only at schools but also through the government and media. The propaganda that others are not equal is causing all the world’s problems especially when one religious group thinks that they are the only true way, and everyone else is wrong, these beliefs should be eradicated by law as God is available free of charge to everyone on earth without any conditions regardless of what any of the major religious institutions preach, as everyone on earth wants to live in peace, with the exception of warmongering morons. I cannot understand why there are so many theological disputes take the example of Roman Catholics believing that the Pope is infallible, or Muslims believe that Mohammed is the prophet or others to believe what they want, that is the meaning of freedom and God. Since the1560s the Protestant Presbyterian churches have been dominated by elders who were the lairds and landowners and they were responsible for choosing the local ministers, in actual fact this policy has never gone away regardless of the many smoke screens set up by the Kirk. Professor T. M. Devine in his book The Scottish Nation 1700-2000 By The Penguin Press, plays the same cover-up performance for the Scottish Protestants, he wrote; ” The clergy were among the social and intellectual leaders of Scotland and from their families came a constant stream of young men and women reared in a domestic atmosphere of religious duty and educational endeavour who went on to make their mark in the Scottish professions bothat home and in the empire.” The period that Devine refers to is the 1840s the people from the Highlands of Scotland were starving to death, and in the cities such as Glasgow and Dundee, women and children’s lives were worthless because of poverty, unemployment and every disease that could be imagined, this was after almost 200 years of glorious Presbyterian rule and education was something for the clergy and elders, one only has to look at Charles Dickens writings for verification. Devine writes; ” Town councillors were also often Kirk elders and were not slow to bring their religious principles to bear on the many problems.” This situation is still rife in Scotland and Northern Ireland with these despicable people still running the show in most of the local councils, and the New Scottish Executive and not to forget Westminster which are all contaminated by these viscous, evil sects that control all the government agencies for their bourgeois landowning masters. Professor Devine describes David Livingstone as a “national icon” who almost became a Scottish“ saint”, hardly an apt description of someone who helped to plunge Africa into hundreds of years of Scottish and English subjugation through his cotton plantations, which lined the pockets of rich Presbyterian churchmen and their families over who’s heads hang the Sword of Damocles waiting tostrike at their thieving descendants. He also proudly writes about India, Africa, the Caribbean and China and the Scots missionaries who were to the fore, no doubt stuffing Opium down the poor Chinese peoples throats and setting up slave cabins~
Devine said; ” The role of the Scots in the British Empire was given a powerful moral legitimacy by the missionary movement. Empire could be seen as a territorial precondition for the expansion of God’s kingdom in order to liberate countless millions from the dreadful grip of paganism.”

Saint Bede-Venerable Bede Doctor of The Holy Roman Catholic Church the greatest scholar, writer, theologian, historian, chronologist in English history!

St. Bede the Venerable
Anglo-Saxon historian
Researched by Frank Dougan 13/12/2018 Saint Bede was the Apostle Saint John.
Written By: The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
Alternative Titles:Bede of Jarrow, Saint Baeda the Venerable, Saint Beda the Venerable, the Venerable Bede
St. Bede the Venerable, Bede also spelled Baeda or Beda, (born 672/673, traditionally Monkton in Jarrow, Northumbria [England]—died May 25, 735, Jarrow; canonized 1899; feast day May 25), Anglo-Saxon theologian, historian, and chronologist. St. Bede is best known for his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (“Ecclesiastical History of the English People”), a source vital to the history of the conversion to Christianity of the Anglo-Saxon tribes.
Heptarchy: The chronicle of Bede and the Bretwalda
The chief chronicler of this period was the 8th-century monk Saint Bede the Venerable, the greatest of the Anglo-Saxon historians. There is sufficient evidence from archaeological remains and ancient place-names to suggest that in its main outlines Bede’s Historia ecclesiastica gentis…
During his lifetime and throughout the Middle Ages, Bede’s reputation was based mainly on his scriptural commentaries, copies of which found their way to many of the monastic libraries of western Europe. The method of dating events from the time of the incarnation, or Christ’s birth—i.e., ad (anno Domini, “in the year of our Lord”)—came into general use through the popularity of the Historia ecclesiastica and the two works on chronology. Bede’s influence was perpetuated at home through the school founded at York by his pupil Archbishop Egbert of York and was transmitted to the rest of Europe by Alcuin, who studied there before becoming master of Charlemagne’s palace school at Aachen.
Nothing is known of Bede’s parentage. At the age of seven he was taken to the monastery of St. Peter at Wearmouth (near Sunderland, Durham), founded by Abbot St. Benedict Biscop, to whose care he was entrusted. By 685 he was moved to Biscop’s newer monastery, of St. Paul, at Jarrow. Bede was ordained a deacon when 19 years old and priest when 30. Apart from visits to Lindisfarne and York, he seems never to have left Wearmouth–Jarrow. Buried at Jarrow, his remains were removed to Durham and are now entombed in the Galilee Chapel of Durham Cathedral.
Bede’s works fall into three groups: grammatical and “scientific,” scriptural commentary, and historical and biographical. His earliest works included treatises on spelling, hymns, figures of speech, verse, and epigrams. His first treatise on chronology, De temporibus (“On Times”), with a brief chronicle attached, was written in 703. In 725 he completed a greatly amplified version, De temporum ratione (“On the Reckoning of Time”), with a much longer chronicle. Both these books were mainly concerned with the reckoning of Easter. His earliest biblical commentary was probably that on the Revelation to John (703?–709); in this and many similar works, his aim was to transmit and explain relevant passages from the Fathers of the Church. Although his interpretations were mainly allegorical, treating much of the biblical text as symbolic of deeper meanings, he used some critical judgment and attempted to rationalize discrepancies. Among his most notable are his verse (705–716) and prose (before 721) lives of St. Cuthbert, bishop of Lindisfarne. These works are uncritical and abound with accounts of miracles; a more exclusively historical work is Historia abbatum (c. 725; “Lives of the Abbots”).
In 731/732 Bede completed his Historia ecclesiastica. Divided into five books, it recorded events in Britain from the raids by Julius Caesar (55–54 bce) to the arrival in Kent (597 ce) of St. Augustine of Canterbury. For his sources, he claimed the authority of ancient letters, the “traditions of our forefathers,” and his own knowledge of contemporary events. Bede’s Historia ecclesiastica leaves gaps tantalizing to secular historians. Although overloaded with the miraculous, it is the work of a scholar anxious to assess the accuracy of his sources and to record only what he regarded as trustworthy evidence. It remains an indispensable source for some of the facts and much of the feel of early Anglo-Saxon history.
The chronicle of Bede and the Bretwalda
The chief chronicler of this period was the 8th-century monk Saint Bede the Venerable, the greatest of the Anglo-Saxon historians. There is sufficient evidence from archaeological remains and ancient place-names to suggest that in its main outlines Bede’s Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (“Ecclesiastical History of the English People”) is substantially correct. It was certainly more than a literary reconstruction by a monk writing in isolation, and Bede himself stated that he had sent a draft of his history to Ceolwulf, king of Northumbria, “to read and examine….” Its statements therefore carry the approval of a Northumbrian king in an age when courts were the chief repositories of national traditions.
Bede names seven kings who successively ruled all the southern provinces of the English people as far as the River Humber, the first of whom was Aelle (flourished late 5th century ce), king of the South Saxons. The second was Ceawlin (ruled 560-592, died 593), king of the West Saxons, under whom the kingdom of Wessex reached the most northerly limits of its early expansion. The third was Aethelberht of Kent (560-616), in whose time the southern kingdoms had begun to assume the outlines of their permanent shape. A 9th-century annalist who copied Bede’s list states that this overlordship brought the title Bretwalda to its possessor. The word, which means “ruler of Britain,” belongs to the complimentary language commonly addressed by poets to patrons who entertained them at court. However, it indicates the range of the superiority allowed to their overlords by the lesser kings who combined to form these early confederacies. Politically, the Kentish kingdom was not strong enough to keep the position to which Aethelberht had raised it. Even before his death in 616, supremacy in southern England was passing from Kent to East Anglia under Raedwald, the fourth in Bede’s list of overlords.
In the north, a greater Northumbria was coming into being under Aethelfrith, and the first recorded trial of strength between northern and southern England was an attack on Aethelfrith by Raedwald in the interest of his protégé Edwin, the exiled heir of the Deiran kingdom. In a battle on the River Idle, near Bawtry, Aethelfrith was killed (616) and Edwin, the fifth in Bede’s list, became king of all Northumbria. Within a few years he had been recognized as overlord throughout southern England, apart from Kent, with which he had a special relationship through his marriage to Aethelberga, King Aethelberht’s daughter. Even so, he came much nearer than any previous king to a position of authority over all of England. Edwin was overthrown in battle (632) on his southern border by Cadwallon, king of Gwynedd, and a member of the Mercian royal house named Penda, who was carried by the victory into the Mercian kingship.
For a year, Cadwallon and his allies gave themselves to a deliberate harrying of all Northumbria. The kingdom was restored by Oswald, son of Aethelfrith of Bernicia. Oswald’s destruction of Cadwallon and his army in 633 made him the outstanding figure among the kings of his time, and he is the sixth in Bede’s list. His reputation among the kings of the north was as great as that which Edwin had once possessed, and in the south he is known to have had direct authority in Lindsey, Wessex, and Sussex. In Mercia, where Penda by now was king, Oswald was regarded as an enemy, and in 641 he was defeated and killed by a Mercian army. After this battle Northumbria devolved into its two ancient divisions of Deira and Bernicia. In Bernicia, Oswald was succeeded by his brother Oswiu, the seventh and final king in Bede’s list. For 13 years Oswiu was confronted by rival kings in Deira and was kept in enforced subordination to Penda by the surrender of hostages. This uneasy equilibrium was ended by one of the most obscure episodes in Old English history. In 654, for no discernible reason, Oswiu was attacked by Penda at the head of a large army to which many allied kings and princes had brought their followers. Penda was defeated and killed in a battle fought in the area of Leeds, and Oswiu, reuniting Deira and Bernicia, was able to annex northern Mercia to his own kingdom and to reestablish Northumbrian ascendancy in the south. Three years later, a revolt in Mercia destroyed this settlement, and with it the possibility that England might be united politically under Northumbrian leadership.

Saint Bede was the Apostle Saint John.odt
An invitation to join Frank Dougan’s Session on Academia.edu.
academia.edu

12/15/18, 6:00 PM

Mary Queen of Scots and Frank Dougan “Francesco Josepa Dougan”
https://independent.academia.edu/FrankDougan/Papers

Marie Stuart…Mary Queen of Scots
Monarch

Send Message

5:07 PM

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My quest for the Holy Gospels. By Francesco Josepa Dougan
Francesco Josepa Dougan

English Cardinal John Henry Newman is created Saint; October 2019

British Ambassador: Canonization of English Cardinal John Henry Newman a great moment for Catholics; October 2019. Sally Axworthy, Britain’s Ambassador to the Holy See, talks about the upcoming canonization of English Cardinal John Henry Newman, describing it as a pivotal moment for British Catholicism. By Francesca Merlo “I think, like the rest of the UK, I am delighted” about the Canonisation of John Henry Newman, says Ambassador Axworthy. Referring to the 1976 canonisation of Scotsman John Ogilvie, she recalls that it has been “over 40 years since there has been a British Saint canonised”. Not only has it been 40 years, but it is also significant as Cardinal Newman will be “the first post-reformation British Saint.” John Henry Newman will be made Saint by Pope Francis, along with four other Blesseds, on Sunday, October 13th in St Peter’s Square. A cause for Sainthood The cause for John Henry Newman’s sainthood was opened in 1958. In an interview with Vatican Radio’s Linda Bordoni, Ambassador Axworthy says it has been an “opportunity” for her to “become more acquainted with Cardinal Newman and his works”. She explains that she read history at university and had therefore studied “his role in the Oxford movement while he was still an Anglican”. However, this year she has been “reading more about his whole life”. “Really,” continues Ambassador Axworthy, “the things he wrote were very striking and I think they remain that way”. She explains that John Henry Newman examined his faith with great “honesty”, examining questions that it posed to him – something which she believes “speaks to people even today”. The emancipation of Catholics in the UK Ambassador Axworthy recalls that “the emancipation of Catholics came in 1829”, and the restoration of the hierarchy in England and Wales came about in 1850. After that, she says, there was a “return to respectability,” and as Cardinal Newman was around for most of the 19th century, he was “very much a part of that”. She then goes on to say that Cardinal Newman was a “towering intellect” in the 19th century and that, though he was “initially vilified for it”, in time he wrote some “very reasoned accounts”. If you read the history around that period, continues Ambassador Axworthy, you can see that his “vilification turned to acceptance, and not just of him, but of Catholics in general.” So, she says, though he was “very important for Catholics in the UK”, both as an historical figure and for the history of English Catholicism he is also important to many Catholics worldwide. Prince Charles to attend the canonisation To mark the canonisation, Prince Charles will be visiting Rome, and he will meet the Pope on Sunday morning. He will also visit the exhibition at the Venerable English College ‘John Henry Newman, a Saint in Rome’. “Most of the places associated to Cardinal Newman are in the UK”, says Ambassador Axworthy, explaining that he was “very much rooted in Oxford”, and after he became a Catholic, in Birmingham, and that he also spent 4 years in Dublin. “But” she says, “he also made four visits to Rome”. The exhibition displays material gathered from four institutions: Propaganda Fidae, the Venerable English College, and the Newman Centre in order to “shine a light on those four visits” For Catholics worldwide Finally, Ambassador Axworthy says that the weekend is a great moment for the UK and for English Catholicism, but also “for all of us more widely to celebrate someone who made a huge impact on his time” and on the times that followed.

Video On The Last Letter Of Mary Queen Of Scots & The Account Of Her Death

Then one of the executioners, pulling off her garters, espied her little dog which was crept under her clothes, which could not be gotten forth but by force, yet afterward would not depart from the dead corpse, but came and lay between her head and her shoulders, which being imbrued with her blood was carried away and washed, as all things else were that had any blood was either burned or washed clean, and the executioners sent away with money for their fees, not having any one thing that belonged unto her. And so, every man being commanded out of the hall, except the sheriff and his men, she was carried by them up into a great chamber lying ready for the surgeons to embalm her.

Ordo Militaris Radio

The Last Letter Of Queen Mary Of Scotland and Her Death, Researched by Francesco Joseph Dougan

Re-blogged and shared with Personal Permission of Francesco Joseph Dougan

I call on the recently Independent United Kingdom and Prime Minister Boris Johnson, to erase all charges of Mary Queen Of Scots, restore her titles and bring her remains back to Scotland and to allow the Traditional Requiem Mass for her to be offered!

Sincerely, the Great Grandson to Saint Queen Margaret of Scotland!

Andrew

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Mary Stuart Was Executed On 8th February 1587 At Fotheringhay Castle

The Catholic faith and the assertion of my God-given right to the English crown are the two issues on which I am condemned, and yet I am not allowed to say that it is for the Catholic religion that I die, but for fear of interference with theirs.
The proof of this is that they have taken away my chaplain, and although he is in the building, I have not been able to get permission for him to come and hear my confession and give me the Last Sacrament, while they have been most insistent that I receive the consolation and instruction of their minister, brought here for that purpose.
The bearer of this letter and his companions, most of them your subjects, will testify to my conduct at my last hour. It remains for me to beg Your Most Christian Majesty, my brother-in-law and old ally, who have always protested your love for me, to give proof now of your goodness on all these points: firstly by charity, in paying my unfortunate servants the wages due them – this is a burden on my conscience that only you can relieve: further, by having prayers offered to God for a queen who has borne the title Most Christian, and who dies a Catholic, stripped of all her possessions.

Ordo Militaris Radio

94e6e9b9-7169-4cb6-bc8f-5047e0db4b2ab69195d0-215b-4774-97ab-1c9650db02e4grandpa and grandma

Re-Blogged From Lindisfarne Gospels: The Works Of Francesco Joseph Dougan

Mary Stuart was executed on 8 February 1587 at Fotheringhay Castle, after a trial whose outcome forever troubled Queen Elizabeth I

This famous account of the execution was written by Robert Wynkfielde.
Researched by Francesco Josepa Dougan; February 2020
Accounts such as these, and woodcuts of the scene, were very popular throughout Europe. The great scandals of Mary’s life were forgotten and she was mourned as a Catholic martyr.
The truth of her demise was not so simple.
Elizabeth did execute Mary over the 19-year course of her imprisonment. Eventually, however, the Catholic threat was deemed too great and Elizabeth signed the warrant for execution.
Her [Mary Queen of Scots] prayers being ended, the executioners, kneeling, desired her Grace to forgive them her death: who answered,
I forgive you with all my heart, for now, I hope, you…

View original post 778 more words

The last letter of Mary Queen of Scots; Researched by Francesco Josepa Dougan… 8 February 2020 English Translation Queen of Scotland 8 Feb. 1587

The Catholic faith and the assertion of my God-given right to the English crown are the two issues on which I am condemned, and yet I am not allowed to say that it is for the Catholic religion that I die, but for fear of interference with theirs.
The proof of this is that they have taken away my chaplain, and although he is in the building, I have not been able to get permission for him to come and hear my confession and give me the Last Sacrament, while they have been most insistent that I receive the consolation and instruction of their minister, brought here for that purpose.

Maryqueenofscots1587's Blog

The last letter of Mary Queen of Scots;
Researched by Francesco Josepa Dougan… 8 February 2020
English Translation
Queen of Scotland
8 Feb. 1587
Royal brother, having by God’s will, for my sins I think, thrown myself into the power of the Queen my cousin, at whose hands I have suffered much for almost twenty years, I have finally been condemned to death by her and her Estates.
I have asked for my papers, which they have taken away, in order that I might make my will, but I have been unable to recover anything of use to me, or even get leave either to make my will freely or to have my body conveyed after my death, as I
would wish, to your kingdom where I had the honour to be queen, your sister and old ally.
Tonight, after dinner, I have been advised of my sentence: I am…

View original post 2,536 more words

The Execution of the Roman Catholic Queen of Scotland, France, England, Ireland and Wales- 8 February 1587; Eye-witness description!

This done, one of the women having a Corpus Christi cloth lapped up three-corner-ways, kissing it, put it over the Queen of Scots’ face, and pinned it fast to the caule of her head.
Then the two women departed from her, and she kneeling down upon the cushion most resolutely, and without any token or fear of death, she spake aloud this Psalm in Latin, “In Te Domine confido, non confundar in eternam”.
Then, groping for the block, she laid down her head, putting her chin over the block with both her hands, which, holding there still, had been cut off had they not been espied.
Then lying upon the block most quietly, and stretching out her arms cried, “In manus tuas, Domine”, etc., three or four times.
Then she, lying very still upon the block, one of the executioners holding her slightly with one of his hands, she endured two strokes of the other executioner with an axe, she making very small noise or none at all, and not stirring any part of her from the place where she lay: and so the executioner cut off her head, saving one little gristle, which being cut asunder, he lift up her head to the view of all the assembly and bade God save the Queen.

Maryqueenofscots1587's Blog

Mary Stuart was executed on 8 February 1587 at Fotheringhay Castle, after a trial whose outcome forever troubled Queen Elizabeth I
This famous account of the execution was written by Robert Wynkfielde.
Researched by Francesco Josepa Dougan; February 2020

Accounts such as these, and woodcuts of the scene, were very popular throughout Europe. The great scandals of Mary’s life were forgotten and she was mourned as a Catholic martyr.

The truth of her demise was not so simple.

Elizabeth did execute Mary over the 19-year course of her imprisonment. Eventually, however, the Catholic threat was deemed too great and Elizabeth signed the warrant for execution.
Her [Mary Queen of Scots] prayers being ended, the executioners, kneeling, desired her Grace to forgive them her death: who answered,
‘I forgive you with all my heart, for now, I hope, you shall make an end of all my troubles.’

Then they, with her…

View original post 773 more words

The Execution of the Roman Catholic Queen of Scotland, France, England, Ireland and Wales- 8 February 1587; Eye-witness description!

Mary Stuart was executed on 8 February 1587 at Fotheringhay Castle, after a trial whose outcome forever troubled Queen Elizabeth I
This famous account of the execution was written by Robert Wynkfielde.
Researched by Francesco Josepa Dougan; February 2020

Accounts such as these, and woodcuts of the scene, were very popular throughout Europe. The great scandals of Mary’s life were forgotten and she was mourned as a Catholic martyr.

The truth of her demise was not so simple.

Elizabeth did execute Mary over the 19-year course of her imprisonment. Eventually, however, the Catholic threat was deemed too great and Elizabeth signed the warrant for execution.
Her [Mary Queen of Scots] prayers being ended, the executioners, kneeling, desired her Grace to forgive them her death: who answered,
‘I forgive you with all my heart, for now, I hope, you shall make an end of all my troubles.’

Then they, with her two women, helping her up, began to disrobe her of her apparel: then she, laying her crucifix upon the stool, one of the executioners took from her neck the Agnus Dei, which she, laying hands off it, gave to one of her women, and told the executioner he should be answered money for it.

Then she suffered them, with her two women, to disrobe her of her chain of pomander beads and all other her apparel most willingly, and with joy rather than sorrow, helped to make unready herself, putting on a pair of sleeves with her own hands which they had pulled off, and that with some haste, as if she had longed to be gone.

All this time they were pulling off her apparel, she never changed her countenance, but with smiling cheer, she uttered these words, ‘that she never had such grooms to make her unready, and that she never put off her clothes before such a company.’

Then she, being stripped of all her apparel saving her petticoat and kirtle, her two women beholding her made great lamentation, and crying and crossing themselves prayed in Latin.

She, turning herself to them, embracing them, said these words in French, ‘Ne crie vous, j’ay prome pour vous’, and so crossing and kissing them, bade them pray for her and rejoice and not weep, for that now they should see an end of all their mistress’s troubles.

Then she, with a smiling countenance, turning to her men servants, as Melvin and the rest, standing upon a bench nigh the scaffold, who sometimes weeping, sometimes crying out aloud, and continually crossing themselves, prayed in Latin, crossing them with her hand bade them farewell, and wishing them to pray for her even until the last hour.

This done, one of the women having a Corpus Christi cloth lapped up three-corner-ways, kissing it, put it over the Queen of Scots’ face, and pinned it fast to the caule of her head.
Then the two women departed from her, and she kneeling down upon the cushion most resolutely, and without any token or fear of death, she spake aloud this Psalm in Latin, “In Te Domine confido, non confundar in eternam”.

Then, groping for the block, she laid down her head, putting her chin over the block with both her hands, which, holding there still, had been cut off had they not been espied.
Then lying upon the block most quietly, and stretching out her arms cried, “In manus tuas, Domine”, etc., three or four times.

Then she, lying very still upon the block, one of the executioners holding her slightly with one of his hands, she endured two strokes of the other executioner with an axe, she making very small noise or none at all, and not stirring any part of her from the place where she lay: and so the executioner cut off her head, saving one little gristle, which being cut asunder, he lifted up her head to the view of all the assembly and bade God save the Queen.

Then, her dress of lawn falling from off her head, it appeared as grey as one of threescore and ten years old, polled very short, her face in a moment being so much altered from the form she had when she was alive, as few could remember her by her dead face.

Her lips stirred up and down a quarter of an hour after her head was cut off.

Then Mr Dean [Dr Fletcher, Dean of Peterborough] said with a loud voice, ‘So perish all the Queen’s enemies,’ and afterwards, the Earl of Kent came to the dead body, and standing over it, with a loud voice said, ‘Such end of all the Queen’s and the Gospel’s enemies.’

Then one of the executioners, pulling off her garters, espied her little dog which was crept under her clothes, which could not be gotten forth but by force, yet afterwards would not depart from the dead corpse, but came and lay between her head and her shoulders, which being imbrued with her blood was carried away and washed, as all things else were that had any blood was either burned or washed clean, and the executioners sent away with money for their fees, not having any one thing that belonged unto her.

And so, every man being commanded out of the hall, except the sheriff and his men, she was carried by them up into a great chamber lying ready for the surgeons to embalm her.

“In my end is my beginning” Marie R

Loved by Francesco Josepa Dougan.

Glasgow, the Uneasy Peace: Religious Tension in Modern … books.google.co.uk › books Tom Gallagher – 1987 – ‎Glascow (Scotland … 'Our Jewish Usurers', 'the Jews and Crime', and 'Why Germany Put Out the … Soon after, another edition had a piece entitled 'Britain's Pro-Jew Menace'.88 In … Nazi Germany at the zenith of its power, he plaintively remarked in Vanguard … www.jstor.org › stable Protestant Extremism in Urban Scotland 1930-1939: Its … – jstor www.jstor.org › stable 1. Similar by T Gallagher – ‎1985 – ‎Cited by 26 – ‎Related articles Edinburgh body eclipsing every other British extremist grouping in … endorsed a report entitled The Menace of the Irish Race to Our Scottish … articles on 'Our Jewish Usurers', 'The Jews and Crime', and 'Why. Germany Put Out the Jews'.4 Soon after, another edition had a piece entitled 'Britain's Pro-Jew Menace'.5. You visited this page on 03/02/20.

Glasgow, the Uneasy Peace: Religious Tension in Modern …
books.google.co.uk › books
Tom Gallagher – 1987 – ‎Glascow (Scotland
… ‘Our Jewish Usurers’, ‘the Jews and Crime’, and ‘Why Germany Put Out the … Soon after, another edition had a piece entitled ‘Britain’s Pro-Jew Menace’.88 In … Nazi Germany at the zenith of its power, he plaintively remarked in Vanguard …
http://www.jstor.org › stable

Protestant Extremism in Urban Scotland 1930-1939: Its … – jstor
http://www.jstor.org › stable
1. Similar
by T Gallagher – ‎1985 – ‎Cited by 26 – ‎Related articles
Edinburgh body eclipsing every other British extremist grouping in … endorsed a report entitled The Menace of the Irish Race to Our Scottish … articles on ‘Our Jewish Usurers’, ‘The Jews and Crime’, and ‘Why. Germany Put Out the Jews’.4 Soon after, another edition had a piece entitled ‘Britain’s Pro-Jew Menace’.5.
You visited this page on 03/02/20.

Maryqueenofscots1587's Blog

Written and researched by Francesco Joseph Dougan

https://independent.academia.edu/FrankDougan/Papershttps://maryqueenofscots1587.wordpress.comhttps://lindisfarnegospels.blogspot.com/https://twitter.com/MQofScots

anti-Judaism as they were xenophobic generalisations based on “a…

books.google.co.uk › books

Glasgow, the Uneasy Peace: Religious Tension in Modern …

books.google.co.uk › books

Tom Gallagher – 1987 – ‎Glascow (Scotland

… ‘Our Jewish Usurers‘, ‘the Jews and Crime‘, and ‘Why Germany Put Out the … Soon after, another edition had a piece entitledBritain’s ProJew Menace‘.88 In … Nazi Germany at the zenith of its power, he plaintively remarked in Vanguard

www.jstor.org › stable

Protestant Extremism in Urban Scotland 1930-1939: Its … – jstor

http://www.jstor.org › stable

  1. Similar

by T Gallagher – ‎1985 – ‎Cited by 26 – ‎Related articles

Edinburgh body eclipsing every other British extremist grouping in … endorsed a report entitled The Menace of the Irish Race to Our Scottish … articles on ‘Our Jewish Usurers

View original post 997 more words

Glasgow, the Uneasy Peace: Religious Tension in Modern … books.google.co.uk › books Tom Gallagher – 1987 – ‎Glascow (Scotland … 'Our Jewish Usurers', 'the Jews and Crime', and 'Why Germany Put Out the … Soon after, another edition had a piece entitled 'Britain's Pro-Jew Menace'.88 In … Nazi Germany at the zenith of its power, he plaintively remarked in Vanguard … www.jstor.org › stable Protestant Extremism in Urban Scotland 1930-1939: Its … – jstor www.jstor.org › stable 1. Similar by T Gallagher – ‎1985 – ‎Cited by 26 – ‎Related articles Edinburgh body eclipsing every other British extremist grouping in … endorsed a report entitled The Menace of the Irish Race to Our Scottish … articles on 'Our Jewish Usurers', 'The Jews and Crime', and 'Why. Germany Put Out the Jews'.4 Soon after, another edition had a piece entitled 'Britain's Pro-Jew Menace'.5. You visited this page on 03/02/20.

Written and researched by Francesco Joseph Dougan

https://independent.academia.edu/FrankDougan/Papershttps://maryqueenofscots1587.wordpress.comhttps://lindisfarnegospels.blogspot.com/https://twitter.com/MQofScots

anti-Judaism as they were xenophobic generalisations based on “a …

books.google.co.uk › books

Glasgow, the Uneasy Peace: Religious Tension in Modern …

books.google.co.uk › books

Tom Gallagher – 1987 – ‎Glascow (Scotland

… ‘Our Jewish Usurers‘, ‘the Jews and Crime‘, and ‘Why Germany Put Out the … Soon after, another edition had a piece entitledBritain’s ProJew Menace‘.88 In … Nazi Germany at the zenith of its power, he plaintively remarked in Vanguard …

www.jstor.org › stable

Protestant Extremism in Urban Scotland 1930-1939: Its … – jstor

http://www.jstor.org › stable

  1. Similar

by T Gallagher – ‎1985 – ‎Cited by 26 – ‎Related articles

Edinburgh body eclipsing every other British extremist grouping in … endorsed a report entitled The Menace of the Irish Race to Our Scottish … articles on ‘Our Jewish Usurers‘, ‘The Jews and Crime‘, and ‘Why. Germany Put Out the Jews‘.4 Soon after, another edition had a piece entitledBritain’s ProJew Menace‘.5.

You visited this page on 03/02/20.

Scotland’s Secret Shame: the Story of Scotland’s downfall …

https://fromrome.wordpress.com/2020/01/13/scotlands-secret-shame-the-story-of-scot…

13/01/2020 · Scotland’s Secret Shame: the Story of Scotland’s downfall January 13, 2020 Benedict’s End Game is to save the Church from Freemasonry January 12, 2020 Frank Walker, January 10: We are in denial if we think good men are running the world January 12, 2020

I am currently reading/studying his paper, Scottish Nationalist Party Founded On Hate & Persecution Of Scottish & Irish Catholics

“By Tom Gallagher 1985. ” The Scottish Historical Review 64, 143-67″. Throughout this chapter Tom Gallagher brings an in-depth view on the hatred displayed and performed by Presbyterian leaders especially during the period dated above.

He notes the victimisation against Irish and Scottish Catholics by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland and the report they produced entitled; The Menace of the Irish Race on Our Scottish Nationality.He writes;“George Malcolm Thomson (later a notable journalist and long-standing aide to Lord Beaverbrook) and Andrew Dewar Gibb, (Founder of the SNP) professor of Scots law at Glasgow University were two nationalists who by the end of the 1920s, were writing about the menace from within posed by the ‘Irish’ in Scotland”.He names Annie S. Swan and R. W. Campbell as amongst the worst by writing;“The arch-imperialist R. W. Campbell, of whom it has been said that he seemed to despise anyone who was not a white, Scottish, Boys Brigade member”.

Tom Gallagher writes about Alexander Ratcliffe and the sectarian newspaper he produced The Vanguard and his viscous political party The Scottish Protestant League (SPL).

Gallagher writes about Catholic schools and notes; The ‘religious’ matter which chiefly preoccupied the SPL was the fact that Catholic schools were now maintained by the state under Section 18 of the 1918 Education (Scotland) Act. Previously largely financed from the meagre resources of the 650,000 strong (and mainly working class) Catholic community”.

Ratcliffe and his followers in the SPL were demanding the abolition of Catholic schools and crying that it was ” Rome on the rates”. Gallagher writes;“This slogan conveniently over looked the fact that up to 1918, Catholic ratepayers had been obliged to subsidise non-Catholic schools while having to make other provisions for their own”. These facts that Gallagher brings were these same scenario with Catholic Churches and properties robbed from the Scottish Catholics from 1560.

Ratcliffe was also a contributor to the labour party weekly ‘The Forward’ which Gallagher claims was the premier paper of the Scottish left from 1906 to the 1950s.Tom Gallagher continues; “Ratcliffe belonged to the Scottish Fascists whose leader Weir Gilmour, maintained his anti-Catholicism well into the post-war years.Gallagher writes that Ratcliffe had close ties with militant Protestants in Northern Ireland and referrers to an incident at the newly opened ‘parliament’ at Stormont.“

On 2nd of May 1933 when a picture depicting King William of Orange being blessed by an ecclesiastical figure resting on a cloud was attacked by an SPL contingent, The painting was daubed by in paint by Mrs. Mary Ratcliffe and then slashed by councillor Forrester”.

Actually this has always been part and parcel of Presbyterian philosophy as we have seen in recent years the same crimes being committed by their followers, who carried out the slashing of Salvador Dali’s masterpiece St. John of the Cross in a Glasgow museum, not to forget the hundred of churches, monasteries and works of art that they have destroyed throughout the past four hundred and forty years, in Scotland, England, Ireland and Wales.Gallagher informs his reader that Lord Scone, Tory MP for Perth had been honorary president of the Scottish Protestant League.Tom Gallagher goes on about Ratcliffe’s visit to nazi-Germany in August 1939 and his support for the Hitler regime he wrote; “By 1940, the Jews had replaced Roman Catholics as his main bugbear and he

contemptuously referred to the Gorbals district of Glasgow as ‘Jew-land’. Articles entitled in The Vanguard ‘Our Jewish Usurers’, ‘the Jews and crime’ and ‘Why Germany put out the Jews’ and a piece entitled ‘Britain’s Pro-Jew Menace’.

He wrote in Vanguard ‘we are very kind to Roman Catholics in Scotland, of course the reason being that we have no Hitler in our midst to eject Popery. Ratcliffe, a Protestant iconoclast to the last, wanted to see the triumph of Hitler”.

Gallagher introduces John Cormack a Protestant extremist who had been accused of stealing mail from the General Post Office where he worked in Edinburgh in 1932, details are listed by Gallagher of the sectarian violence and hatred by Cormack and his followers known as Protestant Action.The Hope Trust is pointed out by Gallagher as having given out anti-Catholic literature to Bible classes and the Boys’ Brigade for many years.During this period Cormack no doubt spurred on by John White the sectarian moderator of the Church of Scotland, the Protestant Action group were standing for elections and Tom Gallagher notes a bold black headline from the Edinburgh and Leith Observer stating; “Sectarianism Dominating Municipal Election, Wild Ward Meetings, Protestant Storm Troops Adopt Un-Christian Tactics.”

Cormack represented South Leith without interruption from 1938 till 1962.Gallagher wrote that Cormack formed ‘Kormack’s Kaledonian Klan’ he notes;“A paramilitary body derived from the Ku Klux Klan.

“He continues to inform his reader;“At the 1935 general election William Fullerton, the leader of the Protestant ‘Billy Boy’ gang came from this part of Glasgow and was a section leader in the British Union of Fascists.”Gallagher points out the evil in these organisations; “On two separate occasions at the Mound (Edinburgh) in June 1940 he (Cormack) was reported as saying that ‘ when Protestants went “over the top”(as in the war) with Roman Catholics, the Protestants should shoot them’, but no action was taken

(by the authorities).

Cormack was elected as a baillie 1955 by his fellow councillors”.